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Scopolamine
Scopolamine
Химическое соединение
ИЮПАК (-)-(S)-3-Hydroxy-2-phenyl-propionic acid (1R,2R,4S,7S,9S)-9-methyl-3-oxa-9-aza-tricyclo[3.3.1.02,4]non-7-yl ester
Брутто-
формула
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C17H21NO4 
Мол.
масса
303.353 g/mol
CAS 51-34-3
PubChem 5184
DrugBank APRD00616
Классификация
АТХ A04AD01 N05CM05, S01FA02
Фармакокинетика
Биодоступность 10 - 50% [1]
Период полувыведения 4.5 hours[1]
Лекарственные формы
 ?

Scopolamine, also known as hyoscine, is a tropane alkaloid drug with muscarinic antagonist effects. It is obtained from plants of the family Solanaceae (nightshades), such as henbane, jimson weed and Angel's Trumpets (Datura resp. Brugmansia spec.), and corkwood (Duboisia species [2]). It is among the secondary metabolites of these plants. Therefore, scopolamine is one of three active components of belladonna and stramonium tinctures and powders used medicinally along with atropine and hyoscyamine.

Scopolamine has anticholinergic properties and has legitimate medical applications in very minute doses. As an example, in the treatment of motion sickness, the dose, gradually released from a transdermal patch, is only 330 micrograms (µg) per day. An overdose can cause delirium, delusions, paralysis [источник?], dangerous elevations of body temperature, stupor and death.

EtymologyПравить

Scopolamine is named after the plant genus Scopolia. The name "hyoscine" is from the scientific name for henbane, Hyoscyamus niger.

PhysiologyПравить

Scopolamine acts as a competitive antagonist at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, specifically M1 receptors; [источник?] it is thus classified as an anticholinergic,anti-muscarinic drug. (See the article on the parasympathetic nervous system for details of this physiology.)

Medical useПравить

In medicine, scopolamine has these uses:

  • Primary:
  • Less often:
    • As a preanesthetic agent
    • Uncommonly, for some forms of Parkinsonism.
    • As an adjunct to narcotic analgesia, such as the product Twilight Sleep which contained morphine and scopolamine, some of the original formulations of Percodan and some European brands of methadone injection [источник?].
    • To enhance the pain-killing ability of various opioids.
    • As an occasional sleep aid, and was available in some over-the-counter-products in the United States for this purpose until November 1990.

NauseaПравить

Its use as an antiemetic in the form of a transdermal patch is the drug's most common medical application in the United States. [источник?]

OphthalmicПравить

The drug is used in eye drops to induce mydriasis (pupillary dilation) and cycloplegia (paralysis of the eye focusing muscle), primarily in the treatment of eye disorders that benefit from its prolonged effect, e.g. uveitis, iritis, iridocyclitis, etc.

Memory researchПравить

Because of its anticholinergic effects, scopolamine has been shown to prevent the activation of medial temporal lobe structures for novel stimuli during spatial memory tasks.

Nicotine addictionПравить

Scopolamine is being investigated for its possible usefulness alone or in conjunction with other drugs in assisting people in breaking the nicotine habit. [источник?] The mechanism by which it mitigates withdrawal symptoms is different from that of clonidine meaning that the two drugs can be used together without duplicating or cancelling out the effects of each other.[источник?]

Other medical usesПравить

Routes of administrationПравить

Scopolamine can be administered by transdermal patches,[6] oral, subcutaneous, ophthalmic and intravenous routes. The transdermal patch for prevention of nausea and motion sickness employs scopolamine base. The oral, ophthalmic and intravenous forms are usually scopolamine hydrobromide (for example in Donnatal).

Recreational useПравить

Scopolamine, in common with the large percentage of anticholinergics which cross the blood-brain barrier such as diphenhydramine, dicyclomine, trihexyphenidyl and related drugs, is said to produce euphoria at and around therapeutic doses [источник?] as well as to potentiate this and other effects of morphine, methadone, hydromorphone, oxycodone and other opioids.[источник?] It is therefore occasionally seen as a recreational drug. The use of medical scopolamine/opioid combination preparations for euphoria is uncommon but does exist and can be seen in conjunction with opioid use. [источник?]

Another separate group of users prefer dangerously high doses, especially in the form of datura preparations, for the deliriant and hallucinogenic effects. The hallucinations produced by scopolamine, in common with other potent anticholinergics, are especially real-seeming, repetitive, boring and unpleasant. An overdose of scopolamine is also physically exceedingly unpleasant and can be fatal, unlike the effect of other more commonly used hallucinogens. For these reasons, naturally occurring anticholinergics are rarely used for recreational purposes. [источник?]

Scopolamine in transdermal, oral, sublingual, and injectable formulations can produce a cholinergic rebound effect when high doses are stopped. This is the opposite of scopolamine's therapeutic effects: sweating, runny nose, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, vertigo, dizziness, irritability, and diarrhea. Psychological dependence is also possible when the drug is taken for its tranquilizing effects. [источник?]

Potential use in interrogationПравить

"The Use of Scopolamine in Criminology" by Robert E. House appeared in the Texas State Journal of Medicine in September, 1922 and was reprinted in The American Journal of Police Science, Vol. 2, No. 4, Jul. - Aug., 1931. [источник?]

The use of scopolamine as a truth drug was investigated in the 1950s by various intelligence agencies, including the CIA as part of Project MKULTRA. Nazi doctor Josef Mengele experimented on scopolamine as an interrogation drug.[источник?]

Criminal useПравить

Traces of scopolamine were found in the body found in the cellar of Hawley Harvey Crippen, executed for the murder of his wife. It is unclear whether this caused death, and there is said to be some doubt that the body found was that of his wife. [источник?]

Scopolamine has been used under the name burundanga in Venezuelan and Thailand resorts in order to drug and then rob tourists. While there are unfounded rumors that delivery mechanisms include using pamphlets and flyers laced with the drug, not enough is readily absorbed through the skin to have an effect. However, spiked alcoholic drinks are occasionally used. In recent years the criminal use of scopolamine has become an epidemic. Approximately half of emergency room admissions for poisoning in Bogotá have been attributed to scopolamine.[7] [источник?]

Victims of this crime are often admitted to a hospital in police custody, under the assumption that the patient is experiencing a psychotic episode. A telltale sign is a fever accompanied by a lack of sweat.[источник?]

In June 2008, more than 20 people were hospitalized with psychosis in Norway after ingesting counterfeit Rohypnol tablets containing Scopolamine. 11

Shamanic useПравить

In Colombia a plant admixture containing scopolamine called Burundanga has been used shamanically for decades.[источник?]

Adverse effectsПравить

The common side effects are related to the anticholinergic effect on parasympathetic postsynaptic receptors: dry mouth, throat and nasal passages in overdose cases progressing to impaired speech, thirst, blurred vision and sensitivity to light, constipation, difficulty urinating and tachycardia. Other effects of overdose include flushing and fever, as well as excitement, restlessness, hallucinations, or delirium. These side effects are commonly observed with oral or parenteral uses of the drug and generally not with topical ophthalmic use. An extreme adverse reaction to ultra-high doses of drugs and other preparations containing scopolamine is temporary blindness which can last up to 72 hours. [источник?]

Use in scuba diving to prevent sea sickness has led to the discovery of another side effect[источник?]. In deep water, below 50–60 feet, some divers have reported pain in the eyes that subsides quickly if the diver ascends to a depth of 40 feet or less. Mydriatics can precipitate an attack of glaucoma in susceptible patients, so the medication should be used with extra caution among divers who intend to go below 50 feet.

Drug interactions Править

When combined with morphine, it produces amnesia and a tranquilized state known as twilight sleep. Although originally used in obstetrics, it is now considered dangerous for that purpose for both mother and baby. [источник?]

History Править

Scopolamine was one of the active ingredients in Asthmador, an over the counter smoking preparation marketed in the 1950s and 60's claiming to combat asthma and bronchitis.

Scopolamine was used from the 1940s to the 1960s to put mothers in labor into a kind of "twilight sleep" that did not stop pain, but merely eliminated the memory of pain by attacking the brain functions responsible for self-awareness and self-control. Often, this caused a kind of psychosis, followed by post-traumatic stress-like memories in thousands of new mothers.[8] [источник?]

Scopolamine was an ingredient used in some over-the-counter sleep aids before November 1990 in the United States, when the FDA forced several hundred ingredients allegedly not known to be effective off the market. Scopolamine shared a small segment of this market with diphenhydramine, phenyltoloxamine, pyrilamine, doxylamine and other first generation antihistamines, many of which are still used for this purpose in drugs like Sominex, Tylenol PM, NyQuil, etc.

Popular culture Править

  • (1940) In one of crime fiction's all-time classic novels, Farewell, My Lovely (1940) by Raymond Chandler, Marlowe gets shot full of Scopolamine in a private sanitarium in order to both shut him up, and to pump him for knowledge, when he gets too close to the truth on a case, or rather several cases entangled into one another, that he is working on (the identity of Velma and the whereabouts of Moose Malloy).
    • "I had been shot full of dope to keep me quiet. Perhaps scopolamine too, to make me talk." (quote by Marlowe in Farewell, My Lovely)
    • "There's a drug called scopolamine, truth serum, that sometimes makes people talk without their knowing it. It's not sure fire, any more than hypnotism is. But it sometimes works." (quote by Marlowe in "Farewell, My Lovely")
  • 1957: In popular culture, scopolamine has achieved a moderate level of notoriety via its mention in the film I Was a Teenage Werewolf, where Dr. Alfred Brandon uses it as part of his endeavor to regress the titular character to his "primitive roots." According to Dr. Liz Kingsley's film review site And You Call Yourself a Scientist, Brandon's line "Prepare the scopolamine!" is "the only scientifically accurate line in the whole film."
  • 1961: Scopolamine is featured in the World War II action classic The Guns of Navarone as a Schutzstaffel truth serum.
  • 1968: Scopolamine is featured in the World War II action classic Where Eagles Dare as a Schutzstaffel truth serum.
  • 1968: In Carlos Castaneda's series of books The Teachings of Don Juan: A Yaqui Way of Knowledge, the Datura plant is the favored shamanic, revelatory drug of the titular character. The book explores, in depth, Castaneda's experiences under the influence of the drug, as well as the rites surrounding its use and preparation.
  • 1972: In Fear and Loathing In Las Vegas by Hunter S. Thompson, the narrator's attorney mentions an incident in which he was given an entire datura root as a gift, at the entire thing at once and went blind, had to be taken back to to house in a wheelbarrow and started making noises like a raccoon.
  • 1974: In episode 1 "That'll Be The Day", of the fourth series of the TV Series Callan, Callan is interrogated by the KGB using the drug Scopolamine as a truth serum.
  • 1979: Scopolamine is also mentioned several times in Robert Ludlum's Matarese Dynasty, a fictional spy novel in which the drug is known for its uses as a truth serum.
  • 1990s: The X-Files Red Museum shows Scopolamine as a suspect agent in usage for kidnappings.
  • 1990: Scopolamine is mentioned by the villain Cain as one of the cutting agents of the drug Nuke in Robocop 2
  • 1994: In the book Blood Hunt by Ian Rankin (written under the pseudonym Jack Harvey) scopolamine, under the name Burundanga is used by the main Character, Gordon Reeve, to gain information and access to facilities in order to find his brother's killer.[9]
  • 2000: In the pilot episode for Season 1 of CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, a female thief seduces a man to sleep with her. She applies scopolamine to her nipples, which knocks the man out when he ingests it orally. After she robs him and makes her escape, the scopolamine which she absorbed into her skin causes her to pass out as well.
  • 2000: Scopolamine was the drug Michael claimed he was injected with either by the military and/or the aliens in "The Mars Records". It might be worth noting in this context that scopolamine can cause confabulation (the mixing of memory and facts).
  • 2007: In the episode "Airborne", one character in the TV show House, M.D. is shown wearing a scopolamine patch.
  • 2008: In the TV series Knight Rider 2008, in episode 4, "A Hard Day's Knight", Mike Knight is poisoned with hyoscine, and needs to find an antidote within 3 hours.
  • 2008: In the TV series My Own Worst Enemy, in episode 2, "The Hummingbird", Henry is poisoned with scopalamine and is told he must have his heart shocked within the next minute or he will die.

References Править

  1. 1,0 1,1 Putcha L, Cintrón NM, Tsui J, Vanderploeg JM, Kramer WG (June 1989). "Pharmacokinetics and oral bioavailability of scopolamine in normal subjects". Pharm. Res. 6 (6): 481–5. DOI:10.1023/A:1015916423156. PMID 2762223.
  2. Jones DM; Jones ME, Lewis MJ, Spriggs TL. (May 1979). "Drugs and human memory: effects of low doses of nitrazepam and hyoscine on retention.". Br J Clin Pharmacol. 7 (5): 479–83. PMID 475944.
  3. Furey, ML; Drevets, WC (October 2006). "Antidepressant efficacy of the antimuscarinic drug scopolamine: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial". Archives of General Psychiatry, vol 63, p 1121 63: 1121. DOI:10.1001/archpsyc.63.10.1121. PMID 17015814.
  4. Bitterman N, Eilender E, Melamed Y (May 1991). "Hyperbaric oxygen and scopolamine". Undersea Biomed Res 18 (3): 167–74. PMID 1853467. Проверено 2008-08-13.
  5. Williams TH, Wilkinson AR, Davis FM, Frampton CM (March 1988). "Effects of transcutaneous scopolamine and depth on diver performance". Undersea Biomed Res 15 (2): 89–98. PMID 3363755. Проверено 2008-08-13.
  6. White PF, Tang J, Song D, et al (2007). "Transdermal scopolamine: an alternative to ondansetron and droperidol for the prevention of postoperative and postdischarge emetic symptoms". Anesth. Analg. 104 (1): 92–6. DOI:10.1213/01.ane.0000250364.91567.72. PMID 17179250.
  7. Wall Street Journal, July 3, 1995
  8. The Business of Being Born, [1]
  9. Rankin, Ian. Blood Hunt. Little, Brown and Company, New York: 1994.

External links Править

Шаблон:Anticholinergics Шаблон:Ancient anaesthesia-footer Шаблон:Antiemetics and antinauseants Шаблон:Hypnotics and sedatives Шаблон:Mydriatics and cycloplegics Шаблон:Deliriants Шаблон:Drugs used in addictive disorderscs:Skopolamin de:Scopolamin es:Escopolamina fr:Scopolamine it:Scopolamina lt:Skopolaminas hu:Szkopolamin nl:Scopolamine ja:スコポラミン pl:Skopolamina pt:Escopolamina ro:Scopolamină ru:Скополамин sk:Skopolamín sl:Skopolamin sv:Skopolamin tr:Skopolamin

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